Amsterdam

Oude Kerk Amsterdam ( , , ; literally, "The Dam on the River Amstel") is the capital}} and most populated city of the Netherlands. It has a population of 921,402 within the city proper, 1,457,018 in the urban area and 2,480,394 in the metropolitan area. Located in the Dutch province of North Holland, Amsterdam is colloquially referred to as the "Venice of the North", for its large number of canals, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Amsterdam was founded at the mouth of the Amstel River, which was dammed to control flooding. Originally a small fishing village in the 12th century, Amsterdam became a major world port during the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, when the Netherlands was an economic powerhouse. Amsterdam was the leading centre for finance and trade, as well as a hub of secular art production. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the city expanded and new neighborhoods and suburbs were built. The city has a long tradition of openness, liberalism, and tolerance. Cycling is key to the city's modern character, and there are numerous biking paths and lanes spread throughout.

Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals; the , the state museum with Dutch Golden Age art; the Van Gogh Museum; the Dam Square, where the Royal Palace of Amsterdam and former city hall are located; the Amsterdam Museum; Stedelijk Museum, with modern art; the concert hall; the Anne Frank House; the , the ; Hortus Botanicus, NEMO, the red-light district and cannabis coffee shops. The city is known for its nightlife and festival activity, with several nightclubs among the world's most famous. Its artistic heritage, canals and narrow canal houses with gabled façades, well-preserved legacies of the city's 17th-century Golden Age, have attracted millions of visitors annually.

The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, founded in 1602, is considered the oldest "modern" securities market stock exchange in the world. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha world city. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters in the city. Many of the world's largest companies are based here or have established their European headquarters in the city, such as technology companies Uber, Netflix and Tesla. In 2022, Amsterdam was ranked the ninth-best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer. The city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in 2019. The Port of Amsterdam is the fifth largest in Europe. The KLM hub and Amsterdam's main airport, Schiphol, is the busiest airport in the Netherlands, third in Europe, and 11th in the world. The Dutch capital is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, with about 180 nationalities represented. Immigration and ethnic segregation in Amsterdam is a current issue.

Amsterdam's notable residents throughout its history include painters Rembrandt and Vincent van Gogh, 17th-century philosophers Baruch Spinoza, John Locke, René Descartes, and the Holocaust victim and diarist Anne Frank. Provided by Wikipedia
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    Published 1914
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    Published 1682
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    Published 1715
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    Published 1656
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    Published 1715
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    Published 1987
    ...Tropenmuseum (Amsterdam, Netherlands)...
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    by Boekhout van Solinge, Tim
    Published 2002
    ...CEDRO (Amsterdam, Netherlands)...
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  16. 16
    by Kal, Pienke W. H.
    Published 2005
    ...Tropenmuseum (Amsterdam, Netherlands)...
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    by Leeuwen, Carel van
    Published 1994
    ...Tropenmuseum (Amsterdam, Netherlands)...
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    by Brakel, J. H. van
    Published 2006
    ...Tropenmuseum (Amsterdam, Netherlands)...
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    Published 2008
    ...Tropenmuseum (Amsterdam, Netherlands)...
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    by Dono, Heri, 1960-
    Published 2009
    ...Tropenmuseum (Amsterdam, Netherlands)...
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