Kenneth and Mamie Clark

Kenneth and Mamie Clark with their children, 1958 Kenneth Bancroft Clark (July 14, 1914 – May 1, 2005) and Mamie Phipps Clark (April 18, 1917 – August 11, 1983) were American psychologists who as a married team conducted research among children and were active in the Civil Rights Movement. They founded the Northside Center for Child Development in Harlem and the organization Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited (HARYOU). Kenneth Clark was also an educator and professor at City College of New York, and first Black president of the American Psychological Association.

They were known for their 1940s experiments using dolls to study children's attitudes about race. The Clarks testified as expert witnesses in ''Briggs v. Elliott'' (1952), one of five cases combined into ''Brown v. Board of Education'' (1954). The Clarks' work contributed to the ruling of the U.S. Supreme Court in which it determined that ''de jure'' racial segregation in public education was unconstitutional. Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote in the ''Brown v. Board of Education'' opinion, "To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely to ever be undone." Provided by Wikipedia
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    Published 1969
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    Published 2004
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    Published 2004
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    Published 1966
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    Published 1967
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